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Warangal History
Warangal and Hanamkonda as legend goes is linked with the dynasties of Great “Vishnukundins” and even prior to it also of the Buddhist periods of Indian History. During 18th Century A.D., Warangal with an old name “Orukal” has served as Capital City of Yadava King of “Tuluva Andhra’s. From the middle of the 12th Century upto two hundred years, this area is ruled by the Kakatiyas or Ganapathis making Warangal as Capital City. The words “Orugallu” “Orukal” are the two variants of one appellation which means “Solitary cliff” standing in the middle of the Warangal fort. The Kakatiya line seems to have been in existence even earlier to the middle of 7th Century A.D. because the famous Chinese Pilgrim Hiuens Tsang mentions the name of the kingdom of “Danakakatiya” in the south. The family name Kakatiya is derived from the local appellation of the Goddess Durga (Kakati). The rajahs of Warangal in the beginning were vassals of the Chalukya Kings of “Vatapi” in the 8th Century. When the Chalukyan kings were in downfall, the kings of Warangal assumed independence and gradually rose to power. The names of few kings i.e., Polaraja Rudra Deva-I, Ganapathi Deva, Rani Rudrama Devi and Prathaparudra have occupied proud full position in the history. Thousand Pillars Temple, Bhadrakali Temple, Ramappa Temple and Warangal Fort are the master pieces of Kakatiya sculpture and architecture.

Later, after the fall of Bhahamani Kingdom, Warangal fell to the “Qutub Shahis” of Golkonda and thereafter it has come under the sway of Nizam’s dominions.

Thus the city of Warangal has developed both under the political and historical influences of successive great kings. The Historians have divided the growth of city in four stages of significant historical events and developments occurred in Warangal city.

1 Kakatiya Stage : 1260 - 1422
2 Transmission Stage : 1422 - 1725
3 Asifijahi Stage : 1725 - 1948
4 Modern Stage : 1948 - On Wards.
SL.No Particulars Unit Quantity
1 Gegraphical area Sq.Kilometers 12,846
2 No. of Mandals No. 51
3 No. of Villages No. 1,098
4 No. of Gram Panchayats No. 1,016
5 No. of Major gram Panchayats(Notified) No. 26
6 No. of Municipalities No. 2
7 No. of Assembly Constituencies No. 12
8 No. of ZPTCs No. 50
9 No. of MPTCs No. 669
10 Total Population In Lakh Nos. 32.46
11 Males ,, 14.37
12 Females ,, 13.82
13 Urban Population ,, 6.23
14 Rural Population ,, 26.23
15 S.Cs Population ,, 4.84
16 S.Ts Population ,, 3.85
17 Workers ,, 13.87
18 Density of Population Per Sq.Km. 219.00
19 Literates In Lakhs 9.19
20 Literacy rate Percentage 32.6
21 No. of Veterinary Institutions No. 231
22 No. of Govt. Hospitals including Dispensaries(Allopathic) ,, 85
23 No. of Primary Schools ,, 1807
24 No. of Upper Primary Schools ,, 504
25 No. of High Schools ,, 528
26 No. of Colleges
(including Jr. Colleges)
,, 33
27 No. of Bank Branches ,, 203
28 Normal Rainfall MMs. 1048.1
29 Actual Rainfall for 1998-99 ,, 1093.5
30 Total Cropped area 1997-98 Lakh Hect. 4.46
31 Net Area Sown. ,, 3.40
32 Total Irrigated Area. ,, 2.32
33 Net Area irrigated ,, 1.98


The district lies between the Latitude of 17-19’ and 18-16’ North and Longitudes of 78-49’ and 80-43’ East. And is above mid sea level by 870 ft. 1700 ft. it is bounded on the North by Karimnagar district. On the West by Medak district, on the south by Nalgonda district and by Khammam district on east and South-east. The geographical area of the district is 12,846 Sq Kms. For the purpose of administration the isolated Hills, hill strams rainfed tank and large lakes. The district possessed interesting pictures of geographical formations and contains minerals of economic importance. The principal formations are classified in to two divisions i.e., Archean puranas and gondwans. The soils of the district comprise of sandy Loam’s with parches of shallow Black cotton soils, and at places even medium and deep Black cotton soil. As the district is generally tends to be dry and there is no much fluctuations in the temperature. It gets quite warm during the summer months of April, May and June and also continues to be warm in the rest of the year except during the December and January, when the temperature drops slightly. The maximum and minimum temperature has been recorded as 50.5 and 13.5 centigrades respectively.

The rainy season sets in the district with the on set of South-West monsoon in the later part of June month, and ends with the months of September with the closure of the South-west monsoon. The normal annual rainfall of the district is 994.001 mm. The maximum of it occurs in the months of July, August, September and the highest rainfall occurs in Mulugu, Parkal, Mahabubabad and Narsampet mandals. Besides SRSP canal with 1.5 lakh acres assured ayacut.

The important irrigation sources in the district are Ramappa, Ghanpur (M), Pakhal and Lakhnavaram and Salivagu project under which considerable area is irrigated. The other sources of irrigation in the district are rain fed tanks, wells and hill-streams which require good showers in the season.

The principal cereal crops grown in the district are Rice, Maize. In its production of rice the district occupies 4th place in Telangana region and 11th place in Andhra Pradesh. According in the consumption of food grains the 90% population of the district rice-eaters.

  • PHYSIOGRAPHY: - The Warangal district is studded with isolated hills, hill streams, rain fed tank and large lakes.
  • GEOLOGY: - Granites and granite gneisses with intrusion of dolerite dikes are found under Achaean puranas. Shales and Sandstones with intermittent coal formations are found under Gondawanas. Iron Ore, Coal Copper and Limestone from the main minerals of the district. Granite stone of Warangal district is very famous as construction material.
  • SOILS: - The soils in the district can be divided into red soils, black soils, loams and sandy loams, Red soils occupy about 55% of the district; black soils about 22% and loams about 14%. The soils are rich in Potash and deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. In terms of micronutrient status, the soils are deficient in zinc.
  • CLIMATE: - The climate of the district is generally dry. The normal annual rainfall is about 1048 mm with 83% of that occurring in four months period from June to September. The rainfall decrease from east to west. In the North-Eastern areas of the district the rainfall is about 1200 mm and the west it is about 750 mm. In eight years out of last thirteen years the rainfall was much less than normal. The normal maximum temperature is about 40o occurring in April and May and minimum temperature about 13.5o c in December.
  • HYDROLOGICAL SETTING: - The district’s total (Surface and Ground water) water resources are 4.8 bcm out of which 1.4 bcm are currently being used for all purposes. The per capita water resources availability at 1490 m3 is slightly more than the State’s per capita availability of 1400 m3 The per capita utilization is about 750 m, constituting about 54% of available water. According to international norms, the district can be considered as water scarce and is heading to severe scarcity condition if the present trend of increase in population continues. The western portion of the district with less surface and ground water potential is already facing severe water conditions and the conditions are likely to deteriorate further if remedial measures are not taken.
  • SURFACE WATER: - The district lies in both Krishna and Godavari basins, the major river basins of Andhra Pradesh. The surface water potential has been estimated by irrigation department by considering the district into two sub-basins of Godavari (G6 & G10) and three sub-basins of Krishna basin (K10, K11 & K12). The total surface potential has been estimated as about 3.0 bcm. The utilization is more than the availability in the three western sub-basins.
  • GROUND WATER: - The ground water potential of the district is about 1.78 bcm out of which 0.82 bcm is the draft for all uses. The ground water stage of development for the entire district is 46% with 25% in tank and canal commands and 53% in non-commands. However, about 34% of the district’s areas are facing over draft of ground water.
  • AGRICULTURE: - Out of the 0.53 million hectors cultivated area, irrigated area is about 0/29 million hectors. More than 70% of the area is irrigated through tube wells and open wells; tanks also play a major role. The canal-irrigated area is minimal in this district. Rice is the major crop under irrigated conditions, and occupies 47% of the total irrigated area. Rice occupies more than 50% of the irrigated area in most of the district and bulk of the area is under ground water irrigation in the western Mandals. Warangal is the highest cotton-growing district in Andhra Pradesh; Cotton occupies 21.6% of the irrigated area. Chilly, Groundnut, Jawar and Maize are the other major crops grown in the district. Agriculture is the main stay of this rural district. The rain is due to the southwest monsoon. Important irrigation sources in the district are Ramappa, Pakhal, Laknavaram, and Salivagu project. Other sources are rain fed tanks, wells and hill streams that require good shewars in the monsoons. New irrigation systems are being constructed to bring Godavari waters to put more area under irrigation in the district. The Kakatiya Canal, SRSP Stage-II Canal and Flood Flow Canal from the Sriramsagar Project are under construction.
  • FORESTS: - The Forest area occupies 371,314 hectors, consists of about 29% geographical area in the district. Most of the forest area is in the Eastern and Southern Mandals of the district. The forest cover in Tadvai Mandal is as high as 86%. Eturunagaram 81% and Mangapet 79%.
    There are two Sanctuaries in the district. Eturunagram Wildlife Sanctuary occupies an area of 80.300 hectors on the banks of Godavari River. Pakhal Wildlife sanctuary is a large scenic lake in the middle forests. The extent of area is about 86,000 Hectors.

Rainwater harvesting activities have been taken up in the forest area through Vana Samrakhana Samitis. An area of 29.144 hectors has been covered so far with rainwater harvesting structures to provide water sources to forest fringe areas.



With a total population of 32.46 lakhs 2001 (Census) the district occupies 13th place in the state A.P. in its population and 12th place in regards to its area. The area 262 persons per Sq. Kms in the district as against 277 in the state, as a whole 22.49% of its population is living in Urban area. During last ninety years i.e. from the beginning of this century the district has recorded a marked increase of 396.33%. The percentage of literacy in the district is 49.26% as against the state figures of 61.58%, only 19.16% of the female population of the district is literate as against the 26.10% of the State.

The scheduled caste population in the district is 5.51 Lakhs and the scheduled tribes population is 4.5 lakhs which forms 16.9% and 14.07% respectively, of the district population.

Out of 1098 Revenue villages of the district 1003 villages are inhabited and the rest of the villages are deserted. The total rural population of the district is 26.23 lakhs. The total urban population is 6.2 lakhs. Warangal city is classified as Municipal Corporation. The working class population in the district is 15.66% lakhs, which is 55.53% of the total population. The workers in agricultural sector are 9.14 lakhs forming 28.12% of the total population. The remaining 4.34 lakhs are the workers engaged in non-agricultural sectors comprising of 27.7% of the total population of the district. The non workers class population is 25.52 lakhs constituting 78.62% of the total population.

The participatory Identification of poor on the basis of well being ranking in 2003 by society for elimination of rural poverty has shown that 72.933 households are poorest of the poor and 160.510 are poor households in Warangal district. Middle households are 188.737 and rich households are 56.888.



The rural population of the district are distributed in 3437 habitations. About 1456 habitations have been fully covered with water supply at the rate of 40 Litres per head per day, nearly 2000 habitations have been provided with partial coverage and 39 habitations have no coverage at all. Except 18 habitations all other habitations depend on ground water for drinking water. Fluoride in ground water is a serious problem in the district, affecting 1382 habitations. In all 1633 habitations have water quality problem.

There are two urban areas namely Warangal and Jangaon. The current requirements are 84 mid and present supply is 73 mid. By 2025 the demand is expected to increase to 133. Mid. Warangal depends to a great extent on Kakatiya Canal supplies. Three large tanks namely Dharmasagar, Bhadrakali and Vaddepalli are used as summer storage tanks to store supplies for 4 months summer period.


Industrial development in the district is low. The district has a large number of small and medium industries in areas of tanning, light engineering, rice mills; wood works etc whose water requirement is not much. Besides the granite industry, Ballapur Industries Limited (BILT) (A.P.Rayons) at Kamalapur (Mangapet Mandal) and Singareni Collieries at Bhoopalapally are the major industries. The present utilization of surface water for industry is about 5.5. and is expected to increase to 13 by 2025.
    The Singareni Co., has started digging of Coal in Bhupalpally area on 15-7-1988 with under ground Mines. It is a public sector company. At present there are 7 UG mines running with a work force of 6046 labourers. Its Coal produce is about 3150 Metric tonnes which costs worth Rs.33, 42,933/- per day. It is very key industry in the District. The Coal is being supplied to NTPC, KTPS and other power-producing units. The INTUC is the recognized Union of the Division. The other Trade Unions are AITUC (CPI), CITU (CPM), IFTU, BMS, HMS, etc.
    The A.J.Mills was opened in 1934 at Warangal near Railway Station. About 4200 staff and workers have worked in the said mill. The National Text Tile Corporation Limited, Bangalore was incorporated in 1974 with 60 Mills transferred to NTC.Ltd. which were located in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Maharashtra as they were nationalized under the provisions of the sick textiles under taking (Nationalization) Act 1974, and this mill was declared as Sick Industrial Company on 12-01-1993. Later the machinery and other establishments were disposed off. In the year 2008 the Kakatiya Urban Development Authority (KUDA) took over the land made it into house sites and business establishment plots and sold away. The history of Azam Jahi Mills, it is the end of an era.
    The factory is in the Agency area of Kamalapur village of Mangapet Mandal, of Mulug Revenue and Police Divisions, of Warangal district. It is located at a distance of 125 Kms from Warangal Town. It is a Private Sector industry of Thapar Group Company. Its Corporate Office is at New Delhi. This is the first major industry in Warangal district under private sector in the Tribal area. Initially the industry was incorporated on 18th March, 1975 the factory has been manufacturing raw material of RAYON GRADE PULP with a capacity of 250 Tonnes per day. It requires the raw material of ECUALYPTUS & CASURINA.

    The Industry is the money Bank to the various Extremist Organisations that are operating in the district. The Extremist Organisations are regularly threatening the Management and the Factory Contractors either by kidnapping or beating them and every year they are collecting money in lakhs on the name of funds for their Organisations. Even these Organisations are also involving in the administrative matters of the factory such as recruiting of P.F. workers from non-P.F. workers and getting their relatives/sympathizers of various Extremists groups are recruited. The factory Management is also providing food, shelter, and transport by engaging either factory vehicles or private cars to Hyderabad and other Cities particularly for the movement of U.G. cadres of CPI (Maoist) and other groups.
    Since Beedi leaf is available plenty in the district, there are 240 beedi and Cigar establishments existing in the district. There are 350 Male Premises workers and 10,882 Home workers employed. There is lot of exploitation of workers by the beedi factory owners, as they do not implement the various provisions of Beedi and Sigar Acts and minimum wages, provident fund and issue of ID cards to the workers etc. The Beedi industry has trade unions of CPI, CPM, CPI-ML, New Democracy, CPI-ML Janashakthi who regularly under take various agitations for achieving their demands.




The workers in un-organised sector are estimated at 1.8 crores in Andhra Pradesh. The following can be included under un-organised sector.

  • All Mill workers i.e. Oil Mills, Dal Mills, Ginning Mills etc.
  • All Mill Hamalies.
  • Transport workers Lorry, Tractor drivers and cleaners.
  • Beedi workers.
  • Shop Gumastas.
  • Construction workers.
  • Men working in private clinics.
The CITU is taking up the causes of workers of un-organised sector and have taken up agitations for payment of minimum wages, provident fund, ESI, Gratuity E.L. Maternity leaves, providing of safety equipments etc.


Since the mainstay of the population is agriculture, the problems of farmers are giving rise to several agitations and unrest in the district. The situation is being exploited by various political parties to gain political advantage while the extremist groups are taking up causes of the farmers in the area and organising agitations, dharnas, rastha rokos, bunds etc. While the frontal organisation of CPI-ML Janashakthi and New Democracy and Prathigatana are taking up open agitational activities, the CPI (Maoist) group is instigating the farmers and political leaders to agitate on the problems of the ryoths. The following are the important problems being faced by farmers.
  • Non-availability of quality seeds in the Market.\
  • Non-availability of quality pesticides.
  • Non-availability of fertilizers.
  • Not getting remunerative prices for their produce in the market.
Earlier there have been many suicides in Warangal. In the press, it is reported that they committed suicide due to the debts and also losses in the cultivation. Various political parties are undertaking agitations demanding exgratia to the farmers who committed suicide.


  • MINIMUM WAGES: Minimum wages for agriculture labour is an other focal point of Communist parties and Extremist groups. Many agitations are being undertaken by CPI, CPM for the implementation of minimum wages to all the Agriculture labours. The extremist groups are also undertaking agitations in this regard.
  • WAGES FOR THE FARM SERVANTS: The CPI and CPM parties have been demanding a comprehensive Act for Agriculture labour to solve the problems of Farm servants and Agriculture labour. The Union Government is also planning to bring out a Law on this issue. The State Government should request the Union government to expedite this so that there will be a comprehensive Law for the Agriculture labour. Wages of Farm Servants is another issue which is taken up by PWG and other extremist groups.




The Warangal Town is a good educational centre with National Institute of Technology, Kakatiya University, Kakatiya Medical College, Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Sciences offering education in engineering, medicine and other major disciplines located here. The research facilities are through National Institute of Technology, Regional Agricultural Research Station of Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University at Warangal and a Horticultural Research Station of the Agricultural University at Malyala of Mahabubabad.
  • KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY: The establishment of Kakatiya University on August 19, 1976 signified the fulfilment of a long cherished aspiration of the people of Telangana. The emergence of this University was in fact a historic event in the sense that it had heralded an era of catering to the needs of rural Telangana in the realm of higher education and offering a number of programmes at the Under-Graduate, Post-Graduate and Research levels in Professional as well as Non-Professional courses. The Department of Law, University Evening College has been upgraded into a full-fledged University College of Law with effect from 01.11.1980.
  • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHONOLOGY (OLD R.E.C) : The Regional Engineering College, Warangal established in the year 1959 is the first among the 17 RECs in the country. It is located on a site of 248 acres extending on either side of Hyderabad-Warangal National High Way 220.

9. 4th Bn. A.P.S.P., MAMNOOR

This 4th Battalion perhaps is the oldest Battalion among the Battalions of Andhra Pradesh. It was original1y originated from MYSORE STATE ARMED RESERVE POLICE (MSARP). The Headquarters of MSARP was at Jalhali, Bangalore, the then Mysore State. Three Battalions of MSARP was requisitioned to Hyderabad State during the evil actions of RAZAKARS of NIZAM in the month of 12/1948 under Commandantship of Sri D.G. BARLE to curb the Razakars of Nizam menace. The MSARP comprised of Ex. Army personnel of all Sadaran States i.e. Mysore, Malabar, Madras and Andhra. The above MSARP Battalions came to Hyderabad State in 12/1948 with initial HQrs. at Yousufguda, Hyderabad. The MSARP which came from Jalhali, Bangalore, Mysore state was disbanded and merged as HSRP (HYDERABAD STATE RESERVE POUCE) on 16-8-1951. The 3rd Bn. HSRP subsequently shifted from Yousufguda to Subedari, Hanamkonda and Warangal in 6/1951. Later this Battalion was confirmed during the year 1956 after formation of Andhra Pradesh, this Battalion was re-organized as 4th Bn., APSP on 18-11-1957 with its HQrs. at Chandrayana Gutta, Hyderabad vide G.O.Ms.No. 1860, Dt. 18-11-1957. This Battalion was relieved 1st Bn. APSP at Mamnoor, Warangal and shifted its HQrs. from Chandrayanagutta, Hyderabad to Mamnoor Lines, Warangal. The HQrs. of 4th Bn. was shifted to Mamnoor during 1959-60.